10% Portuguese state went in smoke

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10% Portuguese state went in smoke in less than a generation. (Portugal) Destroyed the eco-system which was already damaged when native trees were cut for ship building and maintenance. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th–16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300–1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforestation rate during 1636–1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwardf might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.